**Quantum Computing**

At present, there are all the supercomputers in the world; All of them perform calculations and processing of data millions of times faster than other ordinary personal computers; A typical computer has a processor; Whereas supercomputers have countless processors; Which increases the speed of computation and data analysis. But the irony is that both the normal computer and the super computer work on the same technology, that is, they work on the technology based on the traditional binary digit. **Quantum computer**, on the other hand, is based on quantum computing which works according to the principles of quantum physics. Therefore, if powerful super quantum computers are made using quantum computing, then the future of ‘Information and Communication Technology’ and Artificial Intelligence (AI) will change.

## What is Quantum computing?

Quantum figuring is a wide idea or innovation on which quantum PCs are based. Quantum PCs depend on Qubits ie Quantum Bits. In other words, quantum computers perform calculations, data collection and analysis through qubits. Qubits have only two binary digits (0 and 1) as in traditional digital electronic computers, but qubits can be present at the same time as 0 or 1 or a combination of 0 and 1.

Qubits work on two main principles of quantum physics-

**Superposition**

Superposition implies; That each qubit can address both 1 and 0 simultaneously.

**Entanglement**

Entanglement means that the qubits in the state of superposition can be correlated with each other; That is, one position (whether it is 1 or 0) can depend on the position of another.

This means that the qubits are interconnected; If one is acted upon, the other is affected by it; This effect occurs even when they are far away. The computing power of a quantum computer increases exponentially as qubits increase.

**Advantages of Quantum Computing**

Two major phenomena occurring in **quantum computing**, ‘superposition and entanglement’ of qubits, can solve the largest and most complex mathematical problems in a few moments.

This computing also follows the principles of quantum physics, which would lead to the creation of smaller transistors (molecule sizes) that would not only increase energy savings but would also reduce the size of the quantum computer.

In a quantum computer, there is a secure way of ‘encryption’ of information or data. There will be no problem like hacking in this. Some scientists are considering the quantum computer as a completely secure computer. It is thus clear that quantum computing will be of great help in the future in protecting or reading sensitive information and various uses of quantum computers are possible for scientists.

**Read also: What is Machine Learning**

New astronomical information can be gathered using **quantum computing**. By better analyzing the data received from satellites and other space missions, quantum computers can reveal the secrets of the universe. With this, the origin of the universe, the expansion of the universe, the resources present in the celestial bodies, etc. will be known. It is clear as follows; That unprecedented achievements can be achieved using quantum computing in space exploration.

Computers equipped with this computing can be easily used in any weather; That is, quantum computers are unaffected by seasonal aspects.

Quantum computers also have applications in the medical field; In addition, they can be used extensively in supply chain management, logistics, financial services, resource monitoring, etc.

**How do quantum computers work?**

Superposition and ensnarement are two elements of quantum physical science on which these supercomputers are based. This allows quantum computers to handle operations at significantly faster speeds and with much lower power consumption than conventional computers. In the 1980s, the field of quantum computing began . It was later found that some computational problems could be addressed more efficiently with quantum algorithms than with their classical counterparts.

Quantum figuring can contribute extraordinarily to the fields of money, military issues, insight, drug disclosure and plan, aviation plan, atomic combination, polymer plan, man-made brainpower (AI) and enormous information research and digital manufacturing.

**Read also: What is Robotic Process Automation**

**How Quantum Computers Give Results?**

Traditional computers always answer the same problem, no matter how many times the computation is performed. But the results of Quantum Computer are based on probability. That is, they do not always give the same answer. Therefore, when using a quantum computer, a calculation is performed thousands or even millions of times and in this case the answer to which all these calculations are combined is considered correct.

**Challenges of Quantum Computing**

- Managing the Qubit is a big challenge for scientists; Because their life span is short. The encryption tools used to protect the information; They also include ‘RSA’; which is considered the strongest armor; But quantum computers can penetrate it too.
- Quantum technology can endanger the security of any country. This can also increase the risk of breaching confidential information of other countries.
- India lacks infrastructure and scientists for the development of quantum computing; Which is a major obstacle in this area.
- The US National Security Agency (NSA) wants to build such a quantum computer; Which can penetrate all types of encryption used to protect banking, medical, business and other government records stored on computers around the world.

**Source: Quantum Computing**